He and the paratroopers jumped, making a relatively safe daylight landing away from the fighting and the enemy. The Allies had lost the race for Tunis, but that tactical failure would yield an enormous strategic victory; Hitler and Mussolini were thus induced to pour significant resources into Tunisia at a time when those assets were desperately needed elsewhere.
In those circumstances the Americans, from Pres. The British chiefs of staff, spurred by Churchillhad proposed October 7,as the target date for the operation, but U.
The French would be able to pick them off as they fell, then rustle up the scattered survivors as they landed. Meanwhile German U-Boats approached the American fleet from the north, and sank four troop ships before being driven off.
The fledgling American forces that would eventually help liberate France and invade Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany had had a taste of combat. Algiers[ edit ] Resistance and coup[ edit ] As agreed at Cherchell, in the early hours of 8 November, mainly Jewish French Resistance fighters  staged a coup in the city of Algiers.
Ideally there would also be a landing at Tunis to secure Tunisia and facilitate the rapid interdiction of supplies travelling via Tripoli to Rommel's forces in Libya.
Arnim was unwilling to embark on such a venture, so in desperation Rommel appealed to Mussolini. As an operational organization, the 12th AF simply disappeared when its groups were distributed among the various new NAAF commands listed above.
In the meantime, Darlan issued orders to the French troops and ships in the Algiers area to cease firing. On April 8 a fresh attempt to cut off the German retreat was made by the IX Corps, which tried to break through the Fondouk Pass and reach the sea ahead of the Germans.
Eisenhower insisted however that he had no real choice if his forces were to move on against the Axis in Tunisia, rather than fight the French in Algeria and Morocco.
By nightfall they had only advanced a few miles and were still some 15 miles 24 km from Tunis. Mark Clark flew to Gibraltar with four key staff officers, and the party was carried by submarine to a rendezvous at a coastal villa some 60 miles km west of Algiers.
The Resistance temporarily seized key facilities, disabled shore batteries, isolated senior Vichy leaders, and sowed confusion. Though de Gaulle had no official power in North Africa, much of the population now publicly declared Free French allegiance, putting pressure on Darlan.
When he was refused, he decided to remain "a spectator in this affair". Weyland, and Richard E. What Was Operation Torch. That led the Allied commanders to expect a follow-up attack, but they expected that it would come at Fondouk. Invasion[ edit ] American soldiers land near Algiers. During the landing phase, ground forces were to be commanded by U.
The information gathered by the Agency was used by the Americans and British in planning the amphibious November Operation Torch   landings in North Africa.
They would be getting their easy landing. George Patton standing to the side of an M2 medium tank in Tunisia, Hesitation and confusion among the French defenders meant that the invading troops were safely ashore before the landings could be opposed in any serious way. Navy escort carriers and landed at Port Lyautey on November They therefore chose the Casablanca option as the less risky since the forces in Algeria and Tunisia could be supplied overland from Casablanca albeit with considerable difficulty in the event of closure of the straits.
Torch to Pointblank, Chapter 6, Climax in Tunisia, p Difficulty arose in extending the beachhead, however, and by the third day of the operation the outlook was gloomy.
The Americans organized infantry, naval, and paratrooper regiments with Casablanca, Algiers, and Oran as their targets. Ryder, Commanding General of the U. This deeply offended Charles de Gaulle as head of Free France.
Those forces were almost insignificant when compared with the size of the invading Allied armies, and they would have had a slim chance of resisting an attack if the Allied command had developed an advance more rapidly than it did.
Roosevelt and Churchill agreed that Eisenhower would command the operation overall, while British Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham would be its naval commander.
Most of the landings occurred behind schedule. The campaign cemented an important alliance between Britain, the United States, and France. Necessary for surviving the cold African nights, but a huge hindrance as they marched through the heat of the desert day. French sailors scuttled many of their navy ships to prevent Hitler from capturing them.
Although the vast majority of battles in World War II occurred in Europe, Africa also experienced several major military operations on its soil.
Operation Torch was the name of the Allied invasion of northwest Africa in the hopes and goal of removing the Axis presence on the continent. The operation marked the first time that British and American forces worked together on an invasion plan and would take place from November On November 8,American ground forces entered the western theater of WWII.
During Operation Torch they invaded three areas of Axis-occupied North Africa. Operation Torch thus provided Roosevelt with uneven results. Casualties were held to a minimum—about Allied soldiers were killed, another were injured.
The United States got the quick, painless action that Roosevelt believed necessary to slowly lead the American public toward intervention in. Oct 29, · Watch video · Barbarossa was the crucial turning point in World War II, for its failure forced Nazi Germany to fight a two-front war against a coalition possessing immensely superior resources.
The Germans had. Operation Torch was an invasion strategy by Allied forces into North Africa that took place Nov. 8–10,during World War II (–).
Allies General Dwight D. Eisenhower.World war ii operation torch